Capital Techical Rescue

Rope Rescue Safety Factors

High stretch or “dynamic” ropes shave relatively high stretch ratio, due to a spiral constructed core bundle. A point to remember is that the words “static” and “dynamic” are misleading. There is no such thing as a statie rope system, for example, even steel is ME Considered to be static. Low- stretch and high-stretch more accurately describe and identify real world conditions. The Arizona Vortex used as a back from the edge rigging tripod and jamb pole employing the SkyHook® capstan winch. Jamb poles used extensively in the RASI program for alternative anchoring.

NFPA 1983, the Standard on Life Safety Rope and Equipment for Emergency Services was created and first released on June 6, 1985. Prior to this standard, fire rescue services had no agreed-upon definitions or standards for the equipment used in rescue-type scenarios. Nearly 30 years later, this document has seen many revisions and updates, and has become an important driving force for the continued improvement in rescue equipment capabilities. The events of June 27, 1980 and subsequent papers and standards effectively “professionalized” rescue in North America.

silent Killer: Firefighters Search For Alternatives To Toxic Chemicals

With a higher specific gravity (1.38 vs. 1.14 for nylon), polyester will sink faster in water. Nylon rope has advantages in durability and is the most common rope material, and it is the go-to for kernmantle core construction. In addition, nylons are manufactured more efficiently to gain improved breaking capacity and elongation at break. Next, decipher what the created angle is; an oversized protractor works great for this. Once we have that information, grab the calculator and a pen and paper.

The rock fall or structural collapse that incapacitates the rope handlers cannot also weaken or destroy the belay rope or any part of its “bomb-proof” anchor. It’s also important to keep in mind when determining the necessary MBS that factors like edges, knots, age, wear, temperature, and moisture can lower the breaking strength of a rope in use.

If they are willing to carry the extra weight of the Maestro based on its performance, then perhaps we should carefully consider Rope Rescue Safety Factors the Maestro as our primary choice for descent control. The age of a rope is the time from when it was first put into service.

Q: Describe The Ideal Candidate For Rope Access Rescue Training, And The Ideal Candidate For Trr Training

With all the examples provided you can see that even when anticipating a rather large impact and worst case scenario our gear, when used properly, is incredibly strong. This statement is supported by we don’t read about equipment failures in our industry. We read of mistakes made by people when they don’t have the proper training, the needed practice with the skills to do the job or all too often fatigue and stress has played a role in the accident. The rope will keep 85% of its strength because of the sewn termination and no other knots are needed for the operation, 32kN becomes 27kN.

The resultant that we are looking for is the imaginary linear force that bisects this angle. OnJune 27, 1980 FDNY Rescue 3 was called out to a high-rise fire in Harlem, New York City. Kirk is the owner and president of Basecamp Innovations Ltd and is an active internationally certified IFMGA/UIAGM mountain guide based out of British Columbia Canada.

Rope Rescue Safety Factors

TRR training is great for senior rope access people to gain better supervisory skills and to gain better critical emergency scene management, and focus more on patient care. Also, TRR is an obvious choice for the volunteer firefighter looking to expand their resume to make a better candidate for a career fire jobs. Technical rope rescue also deals with building anchors and environments that are not pre-planned.


There is considerable “moth-balling” of the skills when there have been no problem incidents. There is a lack of data-driven change in these organizations, and both sides need to focus on practical research to compile more static datum with which to judge best-practice. Our Rope Rescue Course is a Technician level, NFPA 1006 compliant program. Students are led through progressive training into the more advanced rescue portion. Peak Rescue trains students both inside and outside as well as from fundamental learning environments to real world scenarios. Students have access to state of the art simulated environments and sites. Like any rescue or work safety technique, you need to look at all the variables and decide which technique and equipment will best protect you or your co-workers.

Perform a high-angle rope rescue of a person suspended from, or stranded on, a structure or landscape feature and manage the movement of this person. While OSHA does not address specifics when it comes to rescue systems, there is some overlap from the OSHA as well as the ANSI standards that is helpful when considering the belay system during rescue. This video gives a good demonstration of a rescue lowering and raising system, using a 3-to-1 mechanical advantage pulley system along with a brake bar. The instructor will show you how to change over from a lower to a raise. During a cold change-over, those tending to the main line and belay don’t have to worry about the attendant or the patient, only about getting the system changed properly and as expeditiously as possible. During a hot change-over, however, the integrity of the system must be maintained so there isn’t a fall; there should be as little movement as possible of the load. Like the 3-to-1, this is considered a Simple Pulley System, because there is one continuous rope running back and forth between pulleys on the load and the pulley or pulleys at the anchor.

Rope Rescue Safety Factors

There were few subject matter experts who actually carried credibility in fire-rescue circles. Most were from the climbing and caving communities and their respective rescue circles. The techniques and equipment being used by fire departments for vertical rescue came directly from cavers and climbers. This included caving kernmantle rope, the Cole Rack and the Anderson figure-of-eight descender. As it were, the founders of two prolific rescue rope and equipment companies that remain today lobbied hard in the early days to lower the strength requirements and strict language.

Theories For Safer, Better Rope Rescue

A complete inspection using rope access techniques on the Horse Mesa Dam spillway for Salt River Project in December, 2001. Rescue 3 International is the other leading industry standard for technical rope rescue.

When you are working in small teams with potential for lots of friction running over rock and dirt, a device that can greatly increase friction reduction during hauls is very appealing. The faceted sheave in the Maestro delivers up to 95% pulley efficiency. There are also Compound Pulley Systems, which are basically one simple pulley system pulling on another simple pulley system, with the traveling pulleys moving towards the anchor at different speeds. Compound systems provide more mechanical advantage than simple systems with the same number of pulleys and with less friction. The number of pulleys needed for a simple raising system, not counting a pulley used as a “change of direction,” will be the mechanical advantage minus one. Also, I understand that this safety factor applies to a static system. When there is a shock force — a major fall — on the system, a 10-to-1 safety factor may be reduced to as little as 2-to-1.

Published By Ken Gilden, Animal Fire Rescue

Generally speaking, the average person can pull about 44 pounds , when talking about a 1-to-1 mechanical advantage–ie. So the more mechanical advantage there is in a system, the more a single person can haul, and the more people there are to haul, the less mechanical advantage will be needed. In a rescue system, a mechanical advantage is needed any time you want to raise a patient and attendant back to the higher location.

Details of equipment standards can be found in the BSI publication, Personal fall protection equipment – Personal fall protection systems . Collective protection is equipment that does not require the person working at height to act for it to be effective. Practical examples of collective protection include safety nets and soft-landing systems, such as airbags installed close to the level of the work.

At the completion of the first 50-hour course, all Roco instructors commented on how much easier it was to train new rescuers to use the Petzl Maestro compared to other popular descent control devices. It allowed our students to progress quickly while increasing their safety as well. “Fail-proof” and “fool-proof” are terms which are too often misapplied to modern rope rescue systems incorporating double-rope technique and some form of automatic belay, and they are too often confused with each other. Few practitioners would call single-rope technique “fail-proof”, though mountain and cave rescue teams in Europe, Australia, and in the U.S. have used this method for decades with no record of failure. SRT obviously requires a high level of skill, experience, and vigilance to perform with repeated success – qualities which we should expect from rope rescue technicians. Little was known about the effects shock loading, the degradation of nylon and polyester over time, and an infinite number of “what if …

  • To decide whether the Maestro would be a good choice for an urban/industrial rescue team, let’s look at why a mountain rescue team would choose the Maestro.
  • Peak Rescue trains students both inside and outside as well as from fundamental learning environments to real world scenarios.
  • There is considerable “moth-balling” of the skills when there have been no problem incidents.
  • Sewn bound loop prusiks offer a level of safety that far exceeds the cost savings of making your own.
  • Obviously, more complicated rescues will require a more complicated system and more highly-trained personnel, but with a consequent increase in the scope and probability of failure.
  • Some portable anchors also offer variable feet that include claws or spikes for this scenario.
  • There is no such thing as a statie rope system, for example, even steel is ME Considered to be static.

The PETZL ASAP requires the use of one at all times and the Yates Rescue Load Limiter can be installed in any system to limit the force from 6kN to 2kN if one is used or 4kN if 2 are ganged together. These load limiters do not rely on friction, which can vary considerably between component interfaces, making them more predictable.

Safety Audits

Ropes and knots are used daily in securing equipment, fire suppression, rescue work, and emergency medical applications. Whether working with rope or knots in an emergency or training, SAFETY should be on the mind of all involved. From caving and mountaineering to rope access and technical rope rescue, specific safety regulations, techniques, systems, gear and tools are accredited to each practice individually. To decide whether the Maestro would be a good choice for an urban/industrial rescue team, let’s look at why a mountain rescue team would choose the Maestro. Mountain and back country rescue teams covet light weight, easily transportable equipment. Smaller diameter ropes, lightweight carabiners, pulleys and rope grabs are the norm when you must pack in your own gear.

  • Manufacturer and user group test results on old ropes indicate that rope does not age until it is first put into service.
  • The current trend is a great advancement of technology and equipment.
  • Minimum breaking strength must be considered based on the specific use and length of rope.
  • The resulting answer will be the load force the anchor and hardware will see.
  • Nylon rope has advantages in durability and is the most common rope material, and it is the go-to for kernmantle core construction.
  • It’s the most comprehensive and trusted online destination for fire service professionals worldwide.

Thus, one basic distinction between types of performance rope is static for rescue versus dynamic for mountaineering. Among recreational rope users, however, cavers often choose static rope because they are more likely to rappel and climb out of pits where free-hanging rope descent and ascent are necessary. Like anything else, you need to practice these equations to become proficient in them. Being able to produce pinpoint load numbers in a system is not only helpful but could be paramount. A good rescue specialist presents facts at an operation, not estimates. However, most of us never consider the loads that are being or going to be applied to the anchor and the hardware.

Brad Warr is a Chief Instructor for Roco Rescue and a Captain at the Nampa Fire Department. Brad joined Roco Rescue in 2003, teaching a wide variety of technical rescue classes including rope rescue, confined space rescue, trench rescue, and structural collapse. Brad became a firefighter for the Nampa Fire Department in 1998 and was promoted to Captain in 2006.

One experiment showed a 13mm low-stretch ropes sawed 88% through, was able to statically hold a 600 lb. This was repeated over a 90 degree edge and the same 12% remaining material was able to hold the same 600 lb. Failure did not occur until the utility knife was used to saw through the balance of the material. Operations life safety ropes have a relatively low stretch ratio, due to a non-spiral constructed core bundle. Two to five percent elongation will occur with a working toad (200 Ibs.). Raven and Pacific Ropes have come together to explore the crossover between these two distinct rope fields – technical rope rescue and rope access.

While some changes, such as untying a knot, can make the rope stronger or weaker, others, such as wear or chemical exposure, can create a permanent loss of strength. For these reasons, fire stations may keep dynamic rope on hand for training purposes, and firemen may carry it into remote rescue situations where lead climbing is necessary. It is not recommended for hauling loads, including people, due to the “bounce” if the load falls abruptly and the “give” when pulling equipment. The suitability of any structure in supporting the use of work at height equipment must be considered. Structures that are not stable, or where there is doubt about structural integrity, should not be considered as platforms for working at height unless additional secondary systems are put in to place to add protection for personnel. For example, a combination of ladders and rope systems may be used to access fragile surfaces. Any rope that is not classified as “life safety” ropes will fall under the category of “utility” Utility ropes shave multiple us such hoisting equipment, stabilizing vehicles, medical calls, salvage, etc.

You must understand which forces are being generated and how they are generated. The current trend is a great advancement of technology and equipment. Much more than the 1980s and 1990s, the rescue community is seen as a market to make profits.

Safety Factors

In the picture, the load is already on the green strap and yellow Prusik as my teammates assemble a 3-to-1 raising system with pulleys. Changing from a 3-to-1 to a 5-to-1 is accomplished by running the line back down through a double haul pulley and then up towards the anchor again, perhaps through yet another pulley to perform a change of direction for the haul.

Tags: No tags

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *